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Waste heat from operation is difficult to remove in the compact internal space of a laptop. Early laptops used heat sinks placed directly on the components to be cooled, but when these hot components are deep inside the device, a large space-wasting air duct is needed to exhaust the heat.
Modern laptops instead rely on heat pipes to rapidly move waste heat towards the edges of the device, to allow for a much smaller and compact fan and heat sink cooling system.
Waste heat is usually exhausted away from the device operator towards the rear or sides of the device. Multiple air intake paths are used since some intakes can be blocked, such as when the device is placed on a soft conforming surface like a chair cushion.
Secondary device temperature monitoring may reduce performance or trigger an emergency shutdown if it is unable to dissipate heat, such as if the laptop were to be left running and placed inside a carrying case.
Aftermarket cooling pads with external fans can be used with laptops to reduce operating temperatures. A docking station sometimes referred to simply as a dock is a laptop accessory that contains multiple ports, and in some cases expansion slots or bays for fixed or removable drives.
A laptop connects and disconnects to a docking station, typically through a single large proprietary connector. A docking station is an especially popular laptop accessory in a corporate computing environment, due to a possibility of a docking station to transform a laptop into a full-featured desktop replacement, yet allowing for its easy release.
This ability can be advantageous to " road warrior " employees who have to travel frequently for work, and yet who also come into the office.
If more ports are needed, or their position on a laptop is inconvenient, one can use a cheaper passive device known as a port replicator.
Laptop charging trolleys , also known as laptop trolleys or laptop carts, are mobile storage containers to charge multiple laptops , netbooks , and tablet computers at the same time.
The trolleys are used in schools that have replaced their traditional static computer labs  suites of desktop equipped with "tower" computers, but do not have enough plug sockets in an individual classroom to charge all of the devices.
The trolleys can be wheeled between rooms and classrooms so that all students and teachers in a particular building can access fully charged IT equipment.
Laptop charging trolleys are also used to deter and protect against opportunistic and organized theft. Schools, especially those with open plan designs, are often prime targets for thieves who steal high-value items.
Laptops, netbooks, and tablets are among the highest—value portable items in a school. Moreover, laptops can easily be concealed under clothing and stolen from buildings.
Many types of laptop—charging trolleys are designed and constructed to protect against theft. They are generally made out of steel, and the laptops remain locked up while not in use.
Although the trolleys can be moved between areas from one classroom to another, they can often be mounted or locked to the floor or walls to prevent thieves from stealing the laptops, especially overnight.
In some laptops, solar panels are able to generate enough solar power for the laptop to operate. The OLPC XO-3 can operate with 2 watts of electricity because its renewable energy resources generate a total of 4 watts.
A common accessory for laptops is a laptop sleeve, laptop skin , or laptop case, which provides a degree of protection from scratches. Sleeves, which are distinguished by being relatively thin and flexible, are most commonly made of neoprene , with sturdier ones made of low-resilience polyurethane.
Some laptop sleeves are wrapped in ballistic nylon to provide some measure of waterproofing. Bulkier and sturdier cases can be made of metal with polyurethane padding inside and may have locks for added security.
Metal, padded cases also offer protection against impacts and drops. Another common accessory is a laptop cooler , a device which helps lower the internal temperature of the laptop either actively or passively.
A common active method involves using electric fans to draw heat away from the laptop, while a passive method might involve propping the laptop up on some type of pad so it can receive more air flow.
Some stores sell laptop pads which enable a reclining person on a bed to use a laptop. Features that certain early models of laptops used to have that are not available in most current laptops include:.
Portability is usually the first feature mentioned in any comparison of laptops versus desktop PCs. Within a home, portability enables laptop users to move their device from the living room to the dining room to the family room.
Portability offers several distinct advantages:. While the performance of mainstream desktops and laptop is comparable, and the cost of laptops has fallen less rapidly than desktops, laptops remain more expensive than desktop PCs at the same performance level.
For Internet browsing and typical office applications, where the computer spends the majority of its time waiting for the next user input, even relatively low-end laptops such as Netbooks can be fast enough for some users.
However, laptop processors can be disadvantaged when dealing with a higher-end database, maths, engineering, financial software, virtualization, etc.
This is because laptops use the mobile versions of processors to conserve power, and these lag behind desktop chips when it comes to performance.
Some manufacturers work around this performance problem by using desktop CPUs for laptops. Upgradeability of laptops is very limited compared to desktops, which are thoroughly standardized.
In general, hard drives and memory can be upgraded easily. Optical drives and internal expansion cards may be upgraded if they follow an industry standard , but all other internal components, including the motherboard, CPU and graphics, are not always intended to be upgradeable.
Intel , Asus , Compal , Quanta and some other laptop manufacturers have created the Common Building Block standard for laptop parts to address some of the inefficiencies caused by the lack of standards.
The reasons for limited upgradeability are both technical and economic. There is no industry-wide standard form factor for laptops; each major laptop manufacturer pursues its own proprietary design and construction, with the result that laptops are difficult to upgrade and have high repair costs.
Prolonged use of laptops can cause repetitive strain injury because of their small, flat keyboard and trackpad pointing devices,.
Some health standards require ergonomic keyboards at workplaces. A larger and higher-quality external screen can be connected to almost any laptop to alleviate this and to provide additional screen space for more productive work.
Another solution is to use a computer stand. A study by State University of New York researchers found that heat generated from laptops can increase the temperature of the lap of male users when balancing the computer on their lap, potentially putting sperm count at risk.
The study, which included roughly two dozen men between the ages of 21 and 35, found that the sitting position required to balance a laptop can increase scrotum temperature by as much as 2.
However, further research is needed to determine whether this directly affects male sterility. The resulting heat increase, which could not be offset by a laptop cushion, may increase male infertility.
A common practical solution to this problem is to place the laptop on a table or desk, or to use a book or pillow between the body and the laptop.
Heat generated from using a laptop on the lap can also cause skin discoloration on the thighs known as " toasted skin syndrome ". Because of their portability, laptops are subject to more wear and physical damage than desktops.
Components such as screen hinges, latches, power jacks , and power cords deteriorate gradually from ordinary use, and may have to be replaced.
One study found that a laptop is three times more likely to break during the first year of use than a desktop. Most cleaning kits consist of a lint-free or microfiber cloth for the LCD screen and keyboard, compressed air for getting dust out of the cooling fan, and cleaning solution.
Harsh chemicals such as bleach should not be used to clean a laptop, as they can damage it. Original external components are expensive and usually proprietary and non-interchangeable; other parts are inexpensive—a power jack can cost a few dollars—but their replacement may require extensive disassembly and reassembly of the laptop by a technician.
Other inexpensive but fragile parts often cannot be purchased separately from larger more expensive components. For example, the video display cable and the backlight power cable that pass through the lid hinges to connect the motherboard to the screen may eventually break from repeated opening and closing of the lid.
These tiny cables usually cannot be purchased from the original manufacturer separate from the entire LCD panel, with the price of hundreds of dollars, although for popular models an aftermarket in pulled parts generally exists.
The repair costs of a failed motherboard or LCD panel often exceeds the value of a used laptop. Parts can also be ordered from third party vendors.
Laptops rely on extremely compact cooling systems involving a fan and heat sink that can fail from blockage caused by accumulated airborne dust and debris.
Most laptops do not have any type of removable dust collection filter over the air intake for these cooling systems, resulting in a system that gradually conducts more heat and noise as the years pass.
In some cases the laptop starts to overheat even at idle load levels. This dust is usually stuck inside where the fan and heat sink meet, where it can not be removed by a casual cleaning and vacuuming.
Most of the time, compressed air can dislodge the dust and debris but may not entirely remove it. After the device is turned on, the loose debris is reaccumulated into the cooling system by the fans.
A complete disassembly is usually required to clean the laptop entirely. However, preventative maintenance such as regular cleaning of the heat sink via compressed air can prevent dust build up on the heat sink.
Many laptops are difficult to disassemble by the average user and contain components that are sensitive to electrostatic discharge ESD.
Battery life is limited because the capacity drops with time, eventually requiring replacement after as little as a year. A new battery typically stores enough energy to run the laptop for three to five hours, depending on usage, configuration, and power management settings.
The battery is often easily replaceable and a higher capacity model may be obtained for longer charging and discharging time. Some laptops specifically ultrabooks do not have the usual removable battery and have to be brought to the service center of its manufacturer or a third-party laptop service center to have its battery replaced.
Replacement batteries can also be expensive. Because they are valuable, commonly used, portable, and easy to hide in a backpack or other type of travel bag, laptops are often stolen.
Every day, over 1, laptops go missing from U. Consequently, physical protection of laptops and the safeguarding of data contained on them are both of great importance.
Most laptops have a Kensington security slot , which can be used to tether them to a desk or other immovable object with a security cable and lock.
As of , some laptops also have additional security elements added, including eye recognition software and fingerprint scanning components.
Software such as LoJack for Laptops, Laptop Cop, and GadgetTrack have been engineered to help people locate and recover their stolen laptop in the event of theft.
In the s, the common availability of webcams on laptops raised privacy concerns. There are many laptop brands and manufacturers. Several major brands that offer notebooks in various classes are listed in the adjacent box.
The major brands usually offer good service and support, including well-executed documentation and driver downloads that remain available for many years after a particular laptop model is no longer produced.
Capitalizing on service, support, and brand image, laptops from major brands are more expensive than laptops by smaller brands and ODMs. Many brands, including the major ones, do not design and do not manufacture their laptops.
Instead, a small number of Original Design Manufacturers ODMs design new models of laptops, and the brands choose the models to be included in their lineup.
The list of materials that go into a laptop computer is long, and many of the substances used, such as beryllium, lead, chromium, and mercury compounds, are toxic or carcinogenic to humans.
Although these toxins are relatively harmless when the laptop is in use, concerns that discarded laptops, cause a serious health risk and toxic environment damage, were so strong, that the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive WEEE Directive in Europe specified that all laptop computers must be recycled by law.
Environmental Protection Agency EPA has outlawed landfill dumping or the incinerating of discarded laptop computers. Most laptop computers begin the recycling process with a method known as Demanufacturing Demanufacture , this involves the physical separation of the components of the laptop.
Corporate laptop recycling can require an additional process known as data destruction. The data destruction process ensures that all information or data that has been stored on a laptops hard drive can never be retrieved again.
Below is an overview of some of the data protection and environmental laws and regulations applicable for laptop recycling data destruction:.
The ruggedized Grid Compass computer was used since the early days of the Space Shuttle program. Laptops used aboard the International Space Station and other spaceflights are generally the same ones that can be purchased by the general public but needed modifications are made to allow them to be used safely and effectively in a weightless environment such as updating the cooling systems to function without relying on hot air rising and accommodation for the lower cabin air pressure.
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Retrieved 28 November Archived from the original on 5 December Intel Xeon E v3 1. Intel Core iG 3. Intel Xeon EM v6 3. Intel Xeon EM v5 2. Intel Core iHQ 3.
Intel Core iEQ 2. Intel Core iHQ 2. Intel Core iU 1. Intel Core iG 2. Intel Xeon EL v5 2. AMD Ryzen 7 H. Intel Xeon D 1. AMD Ryzen 7 U.
AMD Ryzen 5 U. Intel Core iU 3. AMD Ryzen 3 U. Intel Core iH 3. Intel Core iDU 2. Intel Core iY 1. Intel Core iE 2.
Intel Core iY75 1. Intel Core iY57 1. Intel Core iY54 1. Intel Core mY30 1. Intel Core mY 1. Intel Pentium U 2. Intel Core mY32 1. Intel Pentium GTE 2.
Intel Core iE 1. Intel Celeron GE 2.